Requirements on risk measurement
Any internal model used to calculate capital requirements for position risk, foreign exchange risk, commodities risk and any internal model for correlation trading shall meet all of the following requirements:
the model shall capture accurately all material price risks;
the model shall capture a sufficient number of risk factors, depending on the level of activity of the institution in the respective markets. Where a risk factor is incorporated into the institution's pricing model but not into the risk-measurement model, the institution shall be able to justify such an omission to the satisfaction of the competent authority. The risk- measurement model shall capture nonlinearities for options and other products as well as correlation risk and basis risk. Where proxies for risk factors are used they shall show a good track record for the actual position held.
Any internal model used to calculate capital requirements for position risk, foreign exchange risk or commodities risk shall meet all of the following requirements:
the model shall incorporate a set of risk factors corresponding to the interest rates in each currency in which the institution has interest rate sensitive on- or off-balance sheet positions. The institution shall model the yield curves using one of the generally accepted approaches. For material exposures to interest-rate risk in the major currencies and markets, the yield curve shall be divided into a minimum of six maturity segments, to capture the variations of volatility of rates along the yield curve. The model shall also capture the risk of less than perfectly correlated movements between different yield curves;
the model shall incorporate risk factors corresponding to gold and to the individual foreign currencies in which the institution's positions are denominated. For CIUs the actual foreign exchange positions of the CIU shall be taken into account. Institutions may rely on third party reporting of the foreign exchange position of the CIU, where the correctness of that report is adequately ensured. If an institution is not aware of the foreign exchange positions of a CIU, this position shall be carved out and treated in accordance with Article 353(3);
the model shall use a separate risk factor at least for each of the equity markets in which the institution holds significant positions;
the model shall use a separate risk factor at least for each commodity in which the institution holds significant positions. The model shall also capture the risk of less than perfectly correlated movements between similar, but not identical, commodities and the exposure to changes in forward prices arising from maturity mismatches. It shall also take account of market characteristics, notably delivery dates and the scope provided to traders to close out positions;
the institution's internal model shall conservatively assess the risk arising from less liquid positions and positions with limited price transparency under realistic market scenarios. In addition, the internal model shall meet minimum data standards. Proxies shall be appropriately conservative and shall be used only where available data is insufficient or is not reflective of the true volatility of a position or portfolio.